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INTRODUCTION: The Landau-Kleffner syndrome is characterized by acquired aphasia with paroxistic activity with sleep pattern, in the electroencephalogram. The aim of this case report is to show the importance of a strong clinical suspect to achieve this diagnosis.
CASE REPORT: A girl, with previous normal development, at 5-years-old underwent a behavioral disorder and language regression, comprehensive and expressive. The diagnosis of Landau-Kleffner syndrome was confirmed by electroencephalogram, with bilateral centro-temporal paroxistic activity, with potentiation of spikes during the sleep. She started pharmacological treatment, with antiepileptic and corticosteroids, and speech therapy. The patient showed an improvement of behavior and language, with a normal electroencephalogram.
DISCUSSION: The Landau-Kleffner syndrome may have different initial presentations that may lead to misdiagnosis and confusion with psychiatric disorders. Early diagnosis and intervention have implications for long-term prognosis.