COVID-19: An Ophthalmologist’s Perspective COVID-19: A Perspetiva do Oftalmologista

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João Paulo Cunha - Corresponding Author

João Paulo Cunha []
R. Fernão Lopes 60, 2750-663 Cobre, Cascais, Portugal

Nuno Moura Coelho
Rita Pinto Proença
Arnaldo Dias Santos
Joana Tavares Ferreira


In just one hundred years, the world has been through five pandemics. Lessons of the past have not prevented a new virus from being responsible for a fifth wave of deaths worldwide, even with scientific advances and the rapid response of societies that, for the most part, anticipated the political and economic response. A century after the end of the Spanish Flu (1918/19), in December 2019, the world has watched the beginning of the second pandemic of the 21st century, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a new severe acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2).
The eye can not only be the entry point for coronaviruses, but also a target organ. Conjunctivitis, uveitis, vasculitis, retinitis and optic neuritis have all been documented in animal models studies.
In this article, we review the possible roles of the visual system/ocular tissues as an entryway, and the potential ophthalmic manifestations of human SARS-CoV-2 infections. This review article will also highlight the most effective ways for protecting and preventing the spread of the virus.

Keywords: COVID-19; Coronavirus Infections; Disease Outbreaks; Eye Diseases; Eye/virology; Ophthalmology; Pandemics; SARS-CoV-2

Article Details

Cunha JP, Coelho NM, Proença RP, Santos AD, Ferreira JT. COVID-19: An Ophthalmologist’s Perspective: COVID-19: A Perspetiva do Oftalmologista. Gaz Med [Internet]. 2020 Jun. 29 [cited 2023 Sep. 27];7(2). Available from:

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