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- Immune checkpoint inhibitors show promise in combating lung cancer and other malignancies by altering the tumor microenvironment and blocking the immune system evasion that allows cancers to grow and proliferate. Two anti-PD-1 antibodies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, are now in clinical use. PD-L1 antibodies such as atezolizumab and MEDI-4736 are in clinical development. Second-line treatment in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer has traditionally involved switching the chemotherapeutic agent, with docetaxel as one standard option.
- Since the publication of the National Lung Screening Trial’s (NLST) results in 2011, low-dose computed tomography screening has been the focus of substantial research, guidelines, and general discussion. The rationale for screening has evolved in the intervening years, and hospitals and health systems have gained experience in implementing screening programs. Research has also begun to show how important smoking is, not just as a risk factor for cancer, but as a variable that can dramatically affect cancer outcomes. Experts discussed these issues during 2016 ASCO Annual Meeting - American Society of Clinical Oncology, June 3 a 7, Chicago, 2016
Recebido: 20/08/2016 – Aceite: 25/08/2016
Keywords: Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/immunology; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Immunotherapy
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